Use the filters below to find the most relevant resources for you.
First Draft Basic Toolkit
A large collection of practical resources to help journalists gather news online, verify information across platforms, and report responsibly.
Access Now’s Digital Security Helpline
Access Now’s 24/7, multilingual, and free technical support for civil society organizations seeking advice on digital security or needing emergency assistance.
Easy-to-use click-through guide on cybersecurity measures that are peer-reviewed by a committee of experts.
CPJ Journalist Security Guide
Guidance on best security practices tailored to journalists and reporters, with a section dedicated to digital threats. ‘Safety notes’ provide a quick-start guide with actionable points.
Government Responses to Malicious Use of Social Media
An overview of regulatory measures that have been adopted by governments to prevent the spread of disinformation
Lexicon of Lies: Terms for Problematic Information Report & Teaching Resources
A useful guide that defines key terms relating to “fake news” and disinformation.
Digital First Aid Kit
Provides preliminary support for common digital threats, including a set of self-diagnostic tools for human rights defenders, bloggers, activists and journalists, and guidelines to assist a person under threat.
Global database of active and inactive fact-checking websites.
First Draft Verification Online Courses
Verification training designed for journalists to spot fake media, fabricated websites, misleading memes, and manipulated videos. The toolkit is also useful to other practitioners seeking to avoid amplification of misleading information. Versions in different languages may differ significantly.
Toolkit on the types of risks associated with disinformation and the strategic preparation organisations might wish to undertake, originally developed for humanitarian and aid organisations.
Tailors traditional risk assessment and penetration testing methodologies to smaller non-profit organizations operating in the developing world. See translation tab for different languages (only portions of the website may be available).
Strategy manual for human rights defenders and civil society groups for integrating physical, psycho-social, and digital security, taking readers from learning to strategizing to action.
An expert guide by the Electronic Frontier Foundation on protecting against online spying and best practices for online communication. Versions in different languages may differ significantly.
The Verification Handbook
A canonical verification resource. Step-by-step guides on journalist-quality verification of information, images, and video in emergency situations.
Journalism, Fake News and Disinformation
Handbook on journalism and disinformation developed by global experts, including chapters on media literacy, fact-checking, verification, and dealing with abuse.
Defusing Hate: A Strategic Guide to Counteract Dangerous Speech
A guide on the dynamics of dangerous speech and designing communications that work to prevent violence, accompanied by workbooks.
Witness Media Lab
A project dedicated to the use of video and technology to protect human rights. Particularly relevant are their curation of verification tools, lessons, and resources – as well as advice on various human right topics.
Disinformation Annotated Bibliography
An annotated bibliography assembled by Gabrielle Lim and published by the Citizen Lab. This resource serves as a reading list and primer on digital disinformation where it curates work on this topic over the past few years and discusses where the future of research may be heading.
Evidence for Democracy Training Resources
A series of webinars and toolkits that help researchers engage with the policy-making process and advocate for evidence-based decision making in government.
Data Analytics for Social Media Monitoring
A guide to help researchers and activists monitor social media networks and detect manipulation, including tools and methodologies for data collection and analysis.
An independent fact-checking website based in India committed to debunking junk news
Citizen Evidence Lab
A helpful list of toolkits, guides, and information for verifying online information and citizen videos
The Digital Public – How Algorithmic Processes Influence Social Discourse
Big picture working paper on algorithmic processes and their impact on public opinion formation.
From Media Errors to Fake News
Survey research on junk news landscape in Germany.
An independent online news resource and fact-checker based in India.
Interactive site linking to a variety of educational resources, activities, and lesson plans for addressing information literacy. Note that links to Ted Ed resources appear in many languages but are only available in English.
Tainted Leaks: Disinformation and Phishing with a Russian Nexus
Helpful for understanding politically-motivated phishing attacks on civil society groups, through an in-depth examination of one case
Communities @ Risk: Targeted Digital Threats Against Civil Society
Report on a four year study involving ten civil society groups, looking at the technical, social, and political nature of targeted digital threats.
Open Letter on Fake News and Elections
Civil society critique of “fake news” discourse in the context of Latin America and the Caribbean, with proposed responses.
Junk News Aggregator
Interactive tool for discovering the most popular junk news stories currently in circulation on Facebook.
News and Political Information Consumption in Brazil: 2018 Presidential Elections (Twitter)
Analysis of Twitter activity in the lead-up to the 2018 Brazilian election, with a focus on the sharing of junk news.
Computational Propaganda in Brazil: Social Bots during Elections
Examination of the role of bots in recent Brazilian elections.
Why Does Junk News Spread So Quickly Across Social Media?
A clear explanation of why social media platforms serve as ripe ground for the spread of junk news.
Challenging Truth and Trust: A Global Inventory of Organized Social Media Manipulation, 2018
Report on how governments and political parties around the world seek to manipulate public opinion using social media.
The Oxygen of Amplification
An in-depth discussion on the potential harms of reporting on hateful movements and a guide to “better practices” for journalists writing about these issues in an American context
Weaponizing the Digital Influence Machine
An exploration of how online advertising tactics, such as consumer monitoring and targeting, have been weaponised to spread disinformation in an American context
Algorithmic Accountability: A Primer
A concise briefing on how algorithms operate, potential harms to society, and how to think about algorithmic accountability
Media Manipulation and Disinformation Online
Useful resource for understanding how a variety of hateful, radical, and conspiratorial internet sub-cultures seek to manipulate media, particularly in the US context
Digital Impact Toolkit
Resources for using data safely and ethically for civil society groups, including sample data-use policies and grant opportunities.
Curated list of academic resources about disinformation, AI, and the tech economy in the European context.
Speak Up and Stay Safe(r): A Guide to Protecting Yourself from Online Harassment
Guide on keeping safe from individuals, groups, and cybermobs online, written by those who have been the targets of cyber attacks.
Security in a Box
A set of guides and toolkits with safety resources, programs, and services for those newer to digital security. Versions in different languages may differ significantly.
Why Do People Share Fake News? A Sociotechnical Model of Media Effects
Academic study on individual motivations for sharing “fake news.” Includes a discussion of the potential limitations of the media literacy approach.
Cutting the Funding of Disinformation: The Ad-Tech Solution
Clear explanation of how the ad-tech industry sustains the spread of disinformation.
Offers legal and personal support to individuals experiencing violence online.
Computational Power: Automated Use of WhatsApp in the Elections
Exploration of automation on WhatsApp ahead of 2018 Brazilian elections. Portuguese version available here: https://feed.itsrio.org/poder-computacional-automa%C3%A7%C3%A3o-no-uso-do-whatsapp-nas-elei%C3%A7%C3%B5es-e969746d231f
An initative to research, monitor, and map online harassment of journalists, and to make recommendations to journalists and newsrooms.
Contending with ‘Fake News’: Reports from the Field
An exploration of five efforts led by civil society organisations and journalists to counter disinformation in EU countries.
Invasion of the Social Bots
Concise overview of how social bots and botnets operate, with examples from the US and Europe.
Proposed framework for assessing news credibility, developed by a coalition of researchers.
The Bots That Are Changing Politics
Quick overview on types of political bots and their varying strategies.
Everything is Gamergate
An accessible piece on online harassment since ‘Gamergate,’ particularly in the American context, and the forms this harassment can take.
The Public’s Trust in Nonprofit Organizations: The Role of Relationship Marketing and Management
Formal non-profit management literature breaking down the types of trust that exist for non-profits and providing guidance on managing public trust.
A Report on Anti-Disinformation Initiatives
A summary of the junk news landscape in 19 countries and government efforts to combat disinformation
Polarisation and the Use of Technology in Political Campaigns and Communication
Detailed discussion of the relationship between the contemporary online space and political polarisation.
Online Harassment Field Manual
Comprehensive field manual for writers, journalists, and allies to counter online harassment, including preparation and response recommendations, legal considerations, resources, and case studies.
Information Manipulation: A Challenge for Our Democracies
Detailed overview of various “information manipulation” phenomena around the world along with responses from government, civil society, and platforms.
International Fact-Checking Network
A network publishing regular articles on junk news trends, common challenges for fact checkers, and best practices
Project Overcome: What to Do if You’ve Been Doxxed by Trolls
A resource and help guide for victims of online harassment, trolling, and doxxing. Project Overcome’s creation was inspired by the events surrounding GamerGate.
Poisoning Democracy: How Canada Can Address Harmful Speech Online
Clear discussion on the limitations of existing policy frameworks for tackling harmful speech and recommendations for improved responses, including capacity-building in civil society.
App that provides digital and physical security advice tailored to human rights defenders, journalists and aid workers. Funded by the Open Technology Fund.
Facts Over Fakes
Discussion of the origin, dissemination, and effects of fake news, focusing on the 2017 German elections as case study.
Video series on using tools for information security, tailored to journalists and reporters
Information Disorder: Toward an Interdisciplinary Framework
Comprehensive overview of issues relating to disinformation and misinformation online; includes recommendations for media and civil society.
Field Guide to “Fake News” and Other Information Disorders
Examination of how junk news operates and spreads across a range of platforms and the research methods that can be adopted for understanding the phenomenon.
The Quint’s fact-checking initiative, focused on debunking junk news in India.
Dedicated fact-checking initiative in India, with focus on statements made by public figures or government reports.
Countering Disinformation: Some Lessons Learnt by Ukraine Crisis Media Center
First-hand account and reflections from a civil society group dealing with targeted disinformation, including policy recommendations.
Defending Politically Vulnerable Organizations Online
Overview of the online threat landscape faced by civil society organizations and the ecosystem that exists to support them.
Socially Conscious but Alone
In-depth survey of young Germans aged 14-24 on their engagement with social media and junk news.
Free Speech is Not the Same as Free Reach
Discussion of how search and recommendation algorithms impact disinformation on online platforms in the US context.
Germany’s NetzDG: A Key Test for Combatting Online Hate
A look into one country’s legislation for combatting online hate speech and the effects over the course of its implementation.
The Trust Project
A civil society effort to develop consistent standards for evaluating the ethics, fairness, and accuracy of news outlets. Good example of collaboration with platforms, as major search engines are set to use this framework in their efforts to surface trustworthy news.
Fake News: What it is and How to Deal With it
Academic paper about the dissemination of hyper-partisan political news in Brazil.
Full Fact Blog
Fact-checking reports on contentious issues in the UK and the state of the information landscape.
Crash Override Resources
A resource center for people experiencing online abuse.
The Politics of Social Media Manipulation
Academic report on the politics of social media manipulation, analysing disinformation in Dutch Elections on different platforms. Summary available in Dutch.
Fact-checking Dutch language news articles
Dutch fact-checking resource that provides some information on the ‘how-to’ of fact-checking articles and images.
Action strategies for countering disinformation by Dutch Government
Dutch government policy commitment and suggested strategies for protecting democracy against disinformation.
The spread of disinformation through internet services and the regulation of political advertisements
Preliminary report on regulation of disinformation and political advertisements, analysed through a legal angle (Dutch and European context).
Dutch government website on disinformation and junk news
Website linking to multiple resources on disinformation and junk news, including checklists, information on action undertaken by the Dutch government, and others.
Safe and smart use of digital media
Website with resources for different target groups on fake news, cyber security, digital literacy, filter bubbles, online polarisation, and much more. Videos, articles and checklists are also available.
Analysing methods to counter disinformation/junk news
Academic paper on different methods for countering disinformation/junk news and their effectiveness
Tips to debunk junk news
Tips on how to unmask and debunk junk news.
A student-driven fact-checking project by the Journalism and Media Studies Centre (University of Hong Kong) in collaboration with ANNIE (Asian Network of News and Information Educators).
Strapline Video Series
A video series promoting a deeper understanding of news literacy where issues are not simply black and white. Content here explores how to identify quality information and approach media critically. The project has a primary focus of Asia.
Tools and Methods to verify videos, images, and news on social media
An easy to read article on verifying sources, videos, images, and news on social media platforms. List of links to useful resources also available.
Fighting Fake News
A short BBC Academy article examining strategies for combatting fake news.
Supporting information and political speech integrity
A report on the disinformation problem around the world, with a breakdown of relevant terms and country case studies available.
Guide for Civil Society on Monitoring Social Media During Elections
A guide aimed at helping civil society better understand the issue of disinformation and its effects on democracy. Available here is a framework to establish monitoring activities, how to produce evidence to counter disinformation, and strategies to help shape better regulation.
AFP Fact Check
A fact-checking website by AFP global news agency, with a number of dedicated journalist debunking misleading content from across the Asia Pacific region and beyond.